In 2016, Dr. Handelsman was given a PCC micro-grant to pursue an observational study aimed at determining the urine and serum steroid profile of F2M transgender men compared with testosterone treated men with functioning gonads.

The goal of the study was to provide novel insight into the interpretation of the urine steroid profile on the impact of testosterone treatment on natal females.

The work encourages the pursuit of blood (serum) testing to detect testosterone doping in women, as the urine T/E ratio (the screening test for testosterone doping) is built upon the physiology of testosterone negative feedback in men and is not applicable to women. Recent CAS jurisprudence confirms serum testosterone measurement as a viable (albeit so-far unutilized) approach to detect testosterone doping in females.

This project was timely in showing how to interpret serum and urine steroid profiles in testosterone treated genetic males and female. It will be crucial to the development of serum steroid profiling by LCMS for detection of testosterone and possibly other androgen doping.

For more information on this study, view the resulting publication in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism:, or email Jenna Celmer at